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October 21, 2013

Publication JOE






Abstract 
Introduction
This study aimed to describe the anatomy of mandibular central and lateral incisors using micro–computed tomographic imaging.

Methods
One hundred mandibular incisors were scanned in a micro–computed tomographic device using an isotropic resolution of 22.9 μm. The anatomy of each tooth (length of the roots, presence and location of accessory canals and apical deltas, and number of canals) as well as the 2- and 3-dimensional morphologic aspects of the canal (area, roundness, diameter, volume, surface area, and structure model index) were evaluated. Data were statistically compared using the Student t test (alpha = 0.05).

Results
The mean lengths of the mandibular central and lateral incisors were 20.71 and 21.56 mm, respectively. Most of the central (60%) and lateral (74%) incisors had no accessory canals. An apical delta was observed in only 1 specimen. The cross-section analysis of the apical third showed the presence of 1, 2, or 3 canal orifices. No statistical difference was observed in the comparison of the 2- and 3-dimensional morphologic parameters between central and lateral incisors (P < .05). The qualitative analyses of the 3-dimensional models of the root canal systems of the central and lateral incisor teeth confirm that the most prevalent configurations were Vertucci's types I (50% and 62%, respectively) and III (28%).

Conclusions
Overall, mandibular central and lateral incisors were similar in terms of the 2- and 3-dimensional analyzed parameters. Vertucci's types I and III were the most prevalent canal configurations of the mandibular incisors; however, 8 new types have also been described.

Publication JOE




Abstract 
Introduction
The accumulation of debris occurs after root canal preparation procedures specifically in fins, isthmus, irregularities, and ramifications. The aim of this study was to present a step-by-step description of a new method used to longitudinally identify, measure, and 3-dimensionally map the accumulation of hard-tissue debris inside the root canal after biomechanical preparation using free software for image processing and analysis.

Methods
Three mandibular molars presenting the mesial root with a large isthmus width and a type II Vertucci's canal configuration were selected and scanned. The specimens were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental approaches: (1) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA, (2) bidistilled water, and (3) no irrigation. After root canal preparation, high-resolution scans of the teeth were accomplished, and free software packages were used to register and quantify the amount of accumulated hard-tissue debris in either canal space or isthmus areas.

Results
Canal preparation without irrigation resulted in 34.6% of its volume filled with hard-tissue debris, whereas the use of bidistilled water or NaOCl followed by EDTA showed a reduction in the percentage volume of debris to 16% and 11.3%, respectively. The closer the distance to the isthmus area was the larger the amount of accumulated debris regardless of the irrigating protocol used.

Conclusions
Through the present method, it was possible to calculate the volume of hard-tissue debris in the isthmuses and in the root canal space. Free-software packages used for image reconstruction, registering, and analysis have shown to be promising for end-user application.